7 Best Dip Bars For Home Use (2024) | #1 For Building Strength!

Brian Adams – Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS)
  • If you’re in the market for a gym-quality piece of equipment that will let you perform dip workouts and more at home, the Ultimate Body Press wall-mounted dip bar with a vertical knee raise station is my top pick.
  • The biggest problem with home dip bars is stability. Most trainers don’t know this, but if you want a truly stable station, you need to either choose a wall-mounted model or look for one with wide bases. 
  • Portable dip equipment is often made of light-duty steel to make it lightweight. On the other hand, if you want something more heavy-duty, look for a body. Unfortunately, it might be too heavy for you to move around.

Best Dip Bar Models For Home Use (Guide 2024)


Wall Mounted



Titan Fitness







Fringe Sport








XMark Fitness




LEBERT Equalizer


Last month Clark who is one of my newer clients, stopped by my office to ask for my opinion on a heavy duty dip bar he wanted to buy. I’m glad he did because he was considering a model I would never recommend just because it was overpriced and not really all that great quality and feature-wise. To save you the trouble of making the wrong decision, I’ve listed my top recommendations for home gym dip bars below.

1. Wall Mounted Dip Station with Vertical Knee Raise Station - Best #1 Overall Model

This wall-mounted dip station with a vertical knee raise station from Ultimate Body Press combines two popular workout stations in one stable piece of equipment. Save floor space and make sure your dip bar won’t budge an inch no matter how intense your workouts are. 

Take a look at its best qualities:

Gym Grade Quality – this dip station designed for home gyms is made of high-grade steel that is both easy to install and holds up well to intensive use. 

Easy Installation – I was able to install this model in about an hour. Take note, and it’s a bit heavy because of its steel body, so you might need someone to help you hold it in place while you mount it to make it easier.


  • The padded foam grips are very comfortable
  • You can decide exactly how high you want it to be
  • It comes with all the hardware you need to assemble and mount it
  • The instructions for installation are very clear and easy to follow
  • It’s backed by a 10-year limited warranty
  • It’s affordable and costs less than $150


  • It’s quite heavy, so you need help mounting it
  • It isn’t portable

Summary: This wall-mounted dip station is ideal if you’re looking for a model that doubles as a knee-raise station. It’s well-built using heavy-duty steel, which gives you a piece of authentic gym equipment feel at the comfort of your home. However, you might want to have someone around to help you mount it to make it easier for you to install.



2. Dip Stand by Titan Fitness - Most Stable Base

This dip stand by Titan Fitness features a compact design, wide base, and feet protectors to prevent it from slipping or damaging your floors.

It’s lightweight and weighs only 40 lbs, so it’s easy to move around when needed. But don’t let that fool you; this piece of equipment can handle my 350-lb brother in law plus 100 lbs of weight without the slightest tremor.

Here’s why you’ll like it:

Extra Wide Base – this model features a sturdy, wide base with floor protecting shoes that not only add to its stability, but it also protects your floors against scratching, and you from potentially slipping. 

Heavy-Duty Capacity – this bar can handle up to 500 lbs easily. This makes it ideal for both beginners and intermediate users or pro lifters who don’t really add much weight to their dip workouts.


  • The black powder coating looks sleek and protects well against oxidation and unregulated temperatures.
  • Its maximum w/c is 500 lbs
  • It only weighs 40 lbs, so it’s easy to relocate when needed
  • It’s affordable and costs under $80
  • It’s very easy to assemble and will take under an hour to do so


  • You’ll feel a slight wobble once you reach over 450 lbs

Summary: This dip stand by Titan Fitness may be a lesser-known piece of equipment, but it certainly isn’t less than others on any account. Despite its roughly $70 price, it can handle up to 500 lbs of user weight which gives you plenty of room to grow or incorporate weights into your workouts. Its 40-lb steel body is lightweight, which means you can easily maneuver it around a room or bring it elsewhere with you when you travel.



3. GoBeast Dip Stand with Stability Bar - Best Adjustable Unit


The GoBeast Dip Stand with Stability Bar features an adjustable width and height design which means it can accommodate users of varying heights and bulk. Its wide base plus the addition of a stabilizer bar means it won’t topple over when you’re particularly enthusiastic about your workout.

Here’s everything you need to know:

Easy Release Lock Pins – the easy release lock pins make it easy to adjust your dip stand to exactly the right width in a few seconds. It simply clicks into a place, unlike other models that require a few tools.

Stabilizer Bar – the stabilizer bar serves two reasons. First, it improves the stability of the dip station by giving you a very wide front base. Second, it holds the easy release lock pins that make it easier for you to adjust your equipment.


  • You can adjust the height and width of this model in less than a minute
  • It can handle up to 330 lbs of user weight
  • The dip bar grips are softly padded, which helps keep your hands from slipping
  • It is easy to assemble and disassemble
  • The frame weighs only around 11 kgs so it’s easily portable
  • The stabilizer bar keeps it from wobbling


  • It can only handle up to 330 lbs, so it might not be a good choice if you like to incorporate weights into your workout

Summary: The GoBeast Dip Stand is an ideal choice if you’re looking for a piece of equipment that you can bring with you anywhere you go and not have to worry about it growing with your body. It features a stabilizer bar that keeps it from wobbling while allowing you to adjust the width of the unit. The height can also be adjusted if needed. However, it’s more light-duty since it can only handle up to 330 lbs.

GoBeast Logo


4. Foldable Wall-Mount Dip Bar - Best for Small Spaces

fringesport Dip

This foldable dip station by FringeSport costs less than $100 and tucks away easily which saves you precious floor space if you don’t really have the extra room for new equipment. This makes it ideal if you live in a flat, apartment, or if you don’t have extra room in your home gym. 

Here’s why you’ll like it:

Convenient Foldable Design – if you’re short on space, this unit attaches to your wall and can be folded either upward or downward when not needed. That means you don’t have to worry about accidentally bumping into one of its arms when you’re trying to move around.

Tapered Design – the arms or the dip bar are tapered so you can adjust your grip to be narrower or wider, which will help you target different muscle groups.


  • It only protrudes 4 inches from the wall when folded
  • It can be folded upward or downward depending on which orientation would be most convenient for you
  • It is very stable if mounted properly, you won’t even feel a slight wobble
  • It can handle up to 600 lbs of user weight
  • It costs under $100 and it ships for free


  • It’s not portable since you have to mount it to your wall
  • It doesn’t come with the hardware needed for installation

Summary: This foldable wall-mount model is an ideal choice for you if you want to save floor space without having a piece of equipment obnoxiously sticking out from your wall when not in use. It can handle user weights of up to 600 lbs, and it costs less than $100 including shipping. Unfortunately, you’ll have to purchase the hardware needed for installation separately. But other than that, it’s easy to install and will take only a few minutes.


5. Prosourcefit DIP STATION

Prosourcefit DIP STATION

The Prosourcefit Dip Stand Station features a 400-lb maximum user weight, adjustable stability bar, and protective rubber soles to prevent slippage and to scratch your floors. It’s lightweight, easy to assemble, and a good piece of equipment if you like to workout outdoors. 

Take a look at its best qualities:

Multipurpose – because of its adjustability, you can perform a number of bodyweight exercises(leg raises) on the unit such as tricep dips, L-sits, and rowing movements among others.

Stability Bar and Rubber Soles – the extendable stability bar and rubber soles not only make it possible for you to perform your workouts without worrying about stability issues, but they also work together to adjust your dip bar width and prevent slippage from slippery floors.


  • It can extend up to 35 inches tall
  • The rubber soles are non-slip and will prevent scratching your floors
  • The safety stability connector guarantees minimal chances of wobbling—if any
  • The maximum adjustable width is up to 24 inches 
  • You can perform more than just dips on this station


  • It can only handle up to 400 lbs of user weight
  • The connector bar is slightly difficult to attach; you may need to unscrew and screw it a couple of times to get it right

Summary: This dip station by Prosourcefit is an ideal choice if you want a portable, lightweight unit that won’t take up much space but still allows you to do a variety of different workout routines. 

Unfortunately, it can only handle up to 400 lbs of user weight, which should be enough for beginners and medium weights.


6. XMark Fitness Dip Station 500 lb - Best Ergonomic Design


The XMark Fitness power tower features a uniquely engineered design that allows you to adjust your grip to be either narrower or wider. Its grips are also an inch larger compared to other models in the market, which adds to its comfort when in use. 

Take a look at its best qualities:

2-inch Padded Grip – the grip handles are just the right size to make it easier and more natural to grip while you dip away on the exercise equipment. It’s also fully padded, which adds to the comfort and also helps with potential slippage.

500 Lb Weight Capacity – this model can handle up to 500 lbs easily despite it being lightweight at only around 50 lbs. This makes it ideal for beginners and intermediate trainers alike.


  • The uniquely engineered handles are designed to be angled so you can adjust your grip to be either narrower or wider 
  • It’s lightweight and weighs a little over 50 lbs
  • It takes up only 51x9x7 inches of floor space
  • It can handle up to 500 lbs of user weight


  • The finish quality isn’t as smooth as expected of XMark

Summary: The XMark Fitness Dip stations is a good choice for you if you want a dip station that can handle up to 500 lbs easily. It’s also lightweight and easy to move around as you please. 

Unfortunately, you might find some bumps on the finish, unlike with other XMark equipment. Luckily, it’s more of a cosmetic issue.



7. LEBERT Equalizer Bars - Most Versatile


The LEBERT Equalizer bars allow you to perform over 100 different workouts in the comfort of your home. It comes in two color variations and helps you strengthen more than just your upper body which is what most dip bars are designed for. 

Here’s why you’ll like it:

Two Bar Design – the equipment comes in two separate bars. This allows you to perform more than just dips and access over 100 different workouts to target your whole body.

Stackable and Storable – you can stack both bars together for safekeeping if you want to save on space. Each bar weighs only 8 lbs each, which makes it easy to move around as you please.


  • The bars are independent of each other which means you can perform more exercise varieties with the equipment
  • The bars weigh only 16 lbs together, so they’re easily portable
  • It comes in two color options—green and yellow
  • It can handle up to 400 lbs of user weight
  • It comes with a HIP Resistance band and downloadable exercise manual
  • The bar bases are wide which makes it very stable
  • For Pull Ups


  • It’s not ideal for users above 6 feet in height

Summary: The LEBERT fitness equalizer bars are ideal if you want an all-in-one piece of equipment for your home gym. It allows you to perform over 100 different types of workouts, plus it only weighs 16 lbs, which means you can take it anywhere with you. Unfortunately, it won’t be very comfortable for users who are over 6 feet tall.



What to Look For When Buying a Dip Bar

When you’re looking for any type of barbell, there are many things you need to consider. This includes the finish and steel durability, among many others. The same applies to dip bars with a few unique aspects that you need to consider with a keen eye.


Any equipment that dip stands up to high mobility during workouts needs to be completely stable. You don’t want to hoist yourself up only to find your dip bar has a wobble, and end up toppling onto the floor, injuring yourself, would you? 

StabilityI can’t tell you how many times clients came up to me telling me that they’re giving up their dip stations at home because they don’t seem to be stable enough. The problem usually, is that they’ve either bought unstable dip bars, or that they haven’t installed it properly. 

It’s a rather easy fix when you haven’t installed your equipment properly. But when you’re faced with an unstable dip station, the issue usually has to do with the base being too small. 

It’s important to make sure the base is wide enough to accommodate stable movement. You also need to account for your flooring when it comes to stability. If your floors are uneven, you should look for a model that has adjustable stabilizers to level out your equipment. 

The general idea is the wider the feet, the more stable it will be. This is why I usually recommend one-piece models over those that come in twos since they usually have a better chance of having feet wide enough to accommodate dip workouts.


Durability, price, and portability usually go hand-in-hand. If you want a truly stable, heavy dip station, you’ll have to look for at least a 2-inch thick steel body. This type of equipment usually costs upwards of $200. 

On the other hand, you also have to be careful about cheaper models that claim to use high-gauge solid steel. Most equipments under $100 use Chinese metal that isn’t very solid and is a bit more lightweight. Although this isn’t a bad thing per se, most of these models will stand up to a fair amount of use and will last you up to ten years or more. 

It’s also important to choose a dip bar with some type of finish. Powder coating will cost you less and will stand up to wear for a decent amount of time. The idea is to protect your station from rusting—and if it’s important to you, keep it looking brand new for as long as possible.


Dip bars are meant to withstand a good amount of body weight. But you still have to be careful with the total weight capacity, especially if you plan on incorporating weight belts into your workouts. And don’t even think about maxing out your dip bar’s w/c. 

So let’s say you weigh 300 lbs, and you plan to add in a 50-lb weight belt. Make sure you have a dip station that can accommodate at least 400 lbs or higher in case you gain weight or want to incorporate more weights into your workout. 

If you’re a beginner, I recommend starting out with more heavyweight models if you want to increase your muscle mass over time. On the other hand, if you don’t plan on getting heavier, choosing a model that has at least 330 lb weight capacity will be more than enough for most.


As I mentioned before, durability and portability usually go hand-in-hand. If you want a more portable piece of equipment, you’ll have to purchase a light steel gauge dip station. 

These are more lightweight, but as mentioned before will still stand up to a fair amount of use. However, they usually have a lower weight capacity compared to more heavy-duty models. 

Of course, heavy-gauge steel equipment will be heavier and more difficult to move around compared to cheaper, more portable models. But they usually also have a higher weight capacity and are meant for more intensive use.



Most dip bars are easy to disassemble for safekeeping. 

But you don’t have to worry about that if you have a dedicated space for your equipment. 

If you plan on stowing away your dip station after use, you’ll have an easier time with a more lightweight and portable unit.

If you don’t care for manually disassembling and assembling your unit, you should look into one that has a foldable design instead.


Dip bars can range from 3 to 6 feet in height. You will have to consider choosing a unit that comes up to your hips or your middle section for the most comfortable workout.

There should be enough height clearance for you to perform the workout without having difficulty reaching up to the bars or having to bend your knees so severely just so your feet won’t touch the floor.

The Benefits Of Using Dip Bars at Home

Dip bars not only make it easier to perform dips at the comfort of your home gym, but they also help you perform safer dip exercises. Aside from that, there are many benefits to incorporating dips into your daily workout routine. Since dips allow you to work on your body strength, you’re also able to exercise areas like your shoulders and your upper back, which can be difficult to target specifically without the use of weights. 

Improving Your Upper Body Muscle Mass

Improving Your Upper Body Muscle Mass​

If you’ve been hoping to grow your body muscles to look a bit more toned—or perhaps you want to resemble the hulk, dip workouts are a good place to start.

Dips are one of the very few exercises that seem to progress quickly; the more you do them. Even without the help of additional weights, you should be able to see a big difference in your body physique within the first few weeks of diligently performing your movements. 

And since dip exercises rely heavily on your body to regulate movement, it only makes sense that the muscle groups responsible for the workout develop a significant increase in muscle mass over time.

Increasing Your Elbow Joint Strength

Dips are another way to improve your elbow joint strength aside from resistance bands.

It’s also more ideal if you want to work on more parts of your body in one rep instead of focusing on your elbow joints or just your arms.

However, you should make sure you’re performing your dips correctly. 

As with any exercise, you are doing them incorrectly could injure you. I suggest consulting a professional to make sure you’re performing it correctly.

Otherwise, you might end up injuring your elbow joints instead.

Will Dips Build Mass?

Different researchers provide a way by which different workout plan cycles can build muscle and lose fat mass. One cycle is circuit training where a workout is performed using a combination of different exercises. There are different forms of circuit training where a number of exercises are performed in a predefined order. Circuit training is useful in getting a good number of benefits; however, it does not prove to be an efficient way in losing fat. You should look at other ways of training that does not involve a variety of exercises as circuit training.

You can combine resistance training and aerobic training. Aerobic training gets the body in a natural and achievable state of fat burning and strength building. You can combine aerobics with weight training to develop muscle. You can do resistance training while being aerobically active. Resistance training is a method of training that works the muscles with resistance. Resistance training also can boost your metabolic rate and fat burning and also make your workout more effective. You can combine resistance training and aerobic exercise with inverted rows to help achieve a high level of fat burning and strength building.

Are Dip Bars Worth It?

I can’t speak to the products of companies I haven’t tried (I’m just a coffee drinker here, guys) but here are the highlights I can share. Dip Bars are heavy. What I mean by heavy is that they feel substantial in your hand. But it’s not like a gel. They don’t really feel like you’re chugging solid liquid and they certainly don’t give you that gel tingle you’re used to on gel strength days.

I’m still very intrigued by the fact that they’re available pre-made, which makes it a bit easier to choose to use or not. I know it sounds like I’m always down to try new things but I’ve always been apprehensive about gel drinks for a few reasons. The first is that you can easily get away with using a gel if you’re training outside for long periods of time, but I’m also not keen on the idea of gels and coffee.

What Can I Use Instead of a Dip Bar?

The divider bars will definitely not make a return to the show, and Kim Kardashian’s rumored fall contouring obsession is a nice change of pace. (We haven’t yet seen it, but she took to Twitter to reveal that she plans to contour her nose in March.) We’ve also seen a huge rise in “skinny jean” contouring, and it’s not hard to imagine the trend continuing through 2019. Skincare companies are selling contouring products that can be applied to skin without requiring any touch ups, but because of that, we’re kind of seeing less of the higher-profile brands on the market. I’m also so done with the crunches and the crisscrosses of scrapes made with pieces of wood and plaster. While they’re all technically contouring moves, they are a bit much. I appreciate the curves, but the old, cheesy contouring classes that I took in my former life were fun and easy to get down

What Size Dip Bars Do I Need?

They really do vary in size and appearance. They’re definitely not uniform. Most handlebars are adjustable from 50mm to 85mm, but how much you use them is dictated by your height and reach. The next measurements are for hand length and for tucking away a short/long model. How to Measure Hand Length (or Width). By measuring the length of your hand with a tape measure and marking 0, then add 1 for each hand width you need. For example, if you have a 37cm hand, you will need a length of 50cm + 1 = 55cm.

How to Measure Long Reach. Use the same measuring device, except using the hand measurement to add 1 for each finger length. So if your hand is 38cm, you would subtract 1 from the 38cm hand measurement to get 28cm. How to Measure Torso Height. Use the same measuring device to add 1 for each foot width you need. So for example, if your torso is 38cm and your wrist measurement is 11cm.

Is PVC Strong Enough for Dip Bars?

PVC (polyvinyl chloride) may not be a suitable material for constructing dip bars, as it lacks the necessary structural strength to safely support the weight and dynamic forces exerted during dip exercises. Dip bars need to withstand the load of the user’s body weight, potential added weights, and the dynamic movements involved in dip exercises. While PVC has its merits in certain applications due to its light weight and affordability, it may not meet the requirements for the robustness and durability necessary for dip bars.

Scientifically speaking, PVC is a relatively brittle material with limited tensile and impact strength compared to metals like steel or aluminum commonly used for dip bar construction. Dip exercises involve repetitive loading and dynamic forces that can subject the bars to stress concentrations, which PVC may struggle to withstand over time. Moreover, PVC’s structural properties can be affected by temperature fluctuations, potentially compromising its stability and safety.

When considering the biomechanics of dip exercises, the materials used play a crucial role in preventing accidents and injuries. Using a material like PVC that may not provide sufficient strength and stability could lead to structural failure, posing risks to the user’s safety during workouts.

In conclusion, while PVC has its uses, it’s not recommended for constructing dip bars due to its inherent limitations in terms of structural strength and durability. Opting for materials like steel or aluminum that are scientifically proven to withstand the stresses and loads associated with dip exercises ensures a safer and more effective workout experience.

What Type of PVC Can Hold 400 PSI?

PVC (polyvinyl chloride) pipes that can withstand a pressure of 400 PSI (pounds per square inch) typically fall into the category of “Schedule 80” PVC pipes. Schedule 80 PVC pipes are engineered to handle higher pressure applications compared to their “Schedule 40” counterparts due to their increased wall thickness and reinforced design.

Scientifically, the term “Schedule” in PVC pipes refers to the thickness of the pipe walls. Schedule 80 PVC pipes have thicker walls than Schedule 40 pipes, which grants them greater strength and the ability to handle higher pressure levels. The design of Schedule 80 PVC pipes includes more reinforcement and resistance to impact, making them suitable for situations where pressure resistance is crucial.

It’s important to note that while Schedule 80 PVC pipes are better equipped to handle higher pressures, they might not necessarily be the ideal choice for constructing dip bars or similar exercise equipment. Dip bars involve dynamic forces and concentrated stresses at specific points, which may not align with the structural integrity of PVC pipes, even of higher schedules. Other materials like steel or aluminum are commonly used for constructing exercise equipment due to their superior strength and load-bearing capabilities.

In conclusion, if you’re looking for PVC pipes that can withstand 400 PSI pressure, Schedule 80 PVC pipes are the appropriate choice. However, for constructing exercise equipment like dip bars, it’s advisable to use materials that are specifically designed for such applications to ensure both safety and durability during workouts.

Stand Alone Thick Grip Dip Station: Elevate Your Workout

Introducing our Stand Alone Thick Grip Dip Station, the ultimate addition to your workout space. Designed for enhanced grip strength and optimal comfort, this dip station is perfect for achieving your fitness goals.

With its sturdy construction and a height of 47 inches, this dip station provides the stability and support you need during your workouts. The angled handles are positioned outward, offering a more comfortable grip and allowing you to find your perfect width. With a range of approximately 14 to 25 inches, you can customize the width to suit your preferences and target different muscle groups effectively.

Enhanced Grip and Comfort

The thick grip handles of our dip station are specifically designed to improve your grip strength. A thicker handle increases the demand on your forearm muscles, leading to greater gains in grip strength and endurance. This feature is particularly beneficial for athletes and fitness enthusiasts looking to enhance their performance in other lifts and exercises that require a strong grip.

Optional Knurled Handles

For an even more secure and textured grip, choose our optional knurled handle upgrade. The knurled handles provide enhanced control and prevent slipping, allowing you to focus on your dips with confidence. This upgrade is perfect for those who want to maximize their grip and ensure the most efficient and safe workout possible.

Super Grip Powder Coat Finish

To ensure durability and a reliable grip, our Stand Alone Thick Grip Dip Station comes with a super grip powder coat finish. This finish not only provides a superior grip but also protects the station from scratches and wear, ensuring its longevity. The powder coating is designed to withstand intense workouts, maintaining its quality and performance over time.

Versatility and Effectiveness

Elevate your dip workouts with the Stand Alone Thick Grip Dip Station and experience the comfort, stability, and versatility it offers. Whether you’re working on your triceps, chest, or overall upper body strength, this dip station is an essential tool in your fitness arsenal. The ability to adjust the width of the handles allows you to tailor your workouts to target specific muscle groups more effectively.

Take Your Fitness Journey to New Heights

Invest in the Stand Alone Thick Grip Dip Station by Black Widow Training Gear and take your fitness journey to new heights. Its robust design, customizable features, and superior grip make it the perfect addition to any home or commercial gym. Achieve your fitness goals with the confidence and support provided by this high-quality dip station.

Frequently Asked Questions About Dip Bars

Dip bars help you perform dips more efficiently. Dip workouts help you target chest muscles, your triceps, and your shoulders. Aside from that, they’re an effective piece of equipment to have if you want to focus on your upper body strength.

Dips help improve muscle mass on your arms, which effectively gives you the appearance of bigger arms. However, this effect is different for each individual and depends on the type of dips you’re doing as well as how extensive, and intense your workout routines are.

Dips are better if you want to specifically target your upper body muscles. However, if you want a more total-body workout, push-ups will work on more than just your arms and upper body. So it really depends on what you want to focus on.

The most popular DIY dip station is by using two high-backed chairs and a couple of weights. To do this, you have to take two chairs at the same height.

Place them back-facing parallel to each other with space for you in the middle. Make sure you weigh down the chairs properly and that there is no risk of them knocking together when you hoist your weight on each of the chair’s backs.

There are many ways to perform dips at home—or anywhere else, while waiting for your dip bar to arrive. You could even head to a local playground and utilize the equipment there for your dip exercises.

Final Words

If you’re looking for a piece of equipment that will help you perform dip workouts at home without taking up too much floor space, the Ultimate Body Press Dip Station is a good choice. It costs less than $150 and is made of durable powder-coated steel that will last you years even if you don’t spend a lot of time maintaining it. 

On the other hand, if you don’t want a wall-mounting unit, you should also look into models like the Titan Fitness dip stand, which is the most stable non-mounted equipment on this list, the GoBeast dip station that features easy lock and release pins that allow you to adjust the height and width of your unit or the XMark Fitness dip bar which boasts an ergonomic design with angled handles that allow you to adjust your grip to your exact comfort levels. 

On the other hand, the LEBERT equalizer bars are also a good option if you’re looking for an all-in-one trainer unit. It has over 100 workout varieties you can perform, and it comes with a workout guide to help you maximize your equipment’s potential.